- Exercise - move more, work up to at least moderate intensity - Low, moderate or slow carbohydrate diet - Fasting: intermittent or time-restricted eating, single or multiple-day fasts, fasting-mimicking diet, alternate day fasts - Sleep improvement because it changes metabolism - Stress reduction because it also changes metabolism
Example scenarios: - A middle-aged woman with minor metabolic syndrome might find that a moderate-carbohydrate diet and moderate exercise is sustainable and gentle on her hormones. - A middle-aged man who just crossed the threshold of obesity might find that low-carbohydrate and eating just two meals a day, combined with lifting weights several times per week, fits well with a busy schedule and improves his physique rapidly, encouraging him to stick with it. - An overweight child with NAFLD might be restricted to whole foods and encouraged to eat more protein and vegetables, but not restricted in terms of quantities or timing of food. - A thin, young, active person with NAFLD should be evaluated for unusually high levels of stress hormones, poor sleep, or unusual circumstances driving poor metabolism.